|Fromfirstname.lastname@example.org (Chris Owen)|
|Subject||Scientology in the United Kingdom: Part 1 - 1950s|
|Date||9 Oct 2001 17:50:54 -0700|
[Links added. -k]
The Church of Scientology has a well-earned reputation as an archetypal "Hollywood cult", beloved of movie starlets and freewheeling Californians. It is a carefully-cultivated image, reinforced by the regular promotional use of such genuinely major figures such as John Travolta and Tom Cruise. The organisation's founder L. Ron Hubbard was, of course, an American and it cannot be denied that the organisation is dominated by Americans and run from the United States. Yet, surprisingly, the United States arguably did not have the greatest effect on Scientology's development. That distinction falls to the United Kingdom, the improbable spiritual home of the Church of Scientology.
In June 1950, Hubbard published Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in the United States to a mixture of catcalls from scientists and doctors, who saw Dianetics as little more than quackery, and applause from members of the public, who saw it as a revolutionary do-it-yourself psychotherapeutic technique. The book rapidly became a bestseller, Dianetics a cause célèbre and Hubbard an overnight celebrity. Thousands of Dianetics groups sprang up across the United States, with Hubbard establishing Dianetics Foundations to coordinate and, highly profitably, to train would-be Dianeticists. Hubbard's spectacular success in the US inevitably found echoes overseas, principally in the English-speaking world — Canada, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. However, Dianetics was not a great success outside the US. It appears to have escaped the attention of the national UK press and Hubbard's name remained largely unknown for years to come. Nonetheless, it did manage to attract a small but loyal band of adherents, and several Dianetics groups were started spontaneously — five in London, others in Bristol, Chorley, Hull, Glasgow and elsewhere.
Dianetics in the UK faced many difficulties that severely hampered its growth. The biggest was, of course, the fact that the Dianetic Foundations established by Hubbard had no presence in the UK or, indeed, anywhere outside of North America. Professional Dianetics training was only available from Hubbard's Foundations in America, but the high cost of attending those courses deterred all but the wealthiest British Dianeticists. A further complication was the fact that the only way to obtain official Dianetics material (including the original book itself) was to import it, but post-war currency exchange and import restrictions made this a difficult and expensive task. For the most part, Foundation publications ended up being retyped by hand and circulated amongst enthusiasts. It was largely because of this problem that a loose organisation, the British Dianetic Association (BDA), was set up to coordinate the reproduction and distribution of Foundation materials for British Dianeticists. The size of its membership rolls illustrates the tiny impact of Dianetics in Britain: by the time it was wound up in June 1951, only eighty to ninety people were members. Even so, Dianetics was markedly more successful in the UK than anywhere else outside of North America.
The BDA was succeeded by what was intended to be a more soundly established organisation, the Dianetic Association Ltd, incorporated to facilitate the distribution of material and establish a Dianetic library. A somewhat edited British edition of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health was published through Derricke Ridgway Ltd, a publisher of esoteric books (other books in the same range included such titles as "The Psychology of the Occult"). However, it was felt by many Dianeticists that this loose umbrella organisation did not go far enough towards resolving the problems of communication and coordination which were hindering Dianetics' development. One of London's larger groups, the Dianetics Study Group, proposed creating a federation of Dianetic groups throughout the country:
With a view to creating an organization which would be consonant with Hubbard's democratic and humanist principles, in which the voice of every minority would be given full, fair and balanced representation, and would steadily work up to professional standards.
In June 1952, a Dianetic Federation of Great Britain was formed, which subsequently absorbed the Dianetic Association Ltd. It exercised little or no practical control over the various groups under its umbrella, many of which guarded their independence jealously; its role was primarily confined, as had been its predecessors', to organising the distribution of material from America.
How much longer that material would continue to be produced was an open question at the time, as the Dianetics movement in the US appeared to be on the verge of collapse. The Dianetic Foundations [had] been declared bankrupt, and Hubbard had fallen out with his erstwhile backer Don Purcell, who had gained control of the commercial rights to Dianetics (although Hubbard did eventually regain them). In the meantime, Hubbard temporarily abandoned Dianetics, moved to Phoenix, Arizona and established Scientology, "the science of the mind". It was at this time a purely secular movement — the first Church of Scientology was not established until December 1953. After his experiences with the relatively uncoordinated and fissiparous Dianetic Foundations, Hubbard was determined from the outset to make Scientology a tightly organised entity under his exclusive control. Within only a few years, he had established the system of contracts and franchises which still underlies much of Scientology's organisational structure; he ensured that his own interests were taken care of by requiring all Scientology organisations to "tithe" him 10% of the income.
At this time, Scientology had no official presence in the UK and Dianetics was still outside of Hubbard's control. He undoubtedly knew of the formation of the Dianetic Federation of Great Britain (DFGB) and regarded it as a threat to his own control of the movement. Around July or August 1952, Hubbard wrote to a British Dianeticist not involved in the leadership of the DFGB, and asked her to establish a Hubbard Dianetic Foundation in Britain, as a profit rather than non-profit corporation, and under his complete control through the Arizona-based Hubbard Association of Scientologists. He made clear in his letters to her that he blamed the failure of the original Dianetic Foundations his lack of complete control over them. British Dianeticists were, naturally, concerned for their independence; the DFGB commented in its newsletter that his "proposal re control would not necessarily be acceptable to all British Dianeticists." Their fears of Hubbard's intentions were justified, as the "full, fair and balanced representation" sought by British Dianeticians had no attractions for him. He had no desire for members or co-directors with voting rights in Scientology organisations and saw no virtues in the small independent groups around which Dianetics was organized in Britain. Accordingly, he sought to supplant them by establishing a strong central organisation which would supplant them and capture their membership. He portrayed it rather differently, of course; a few years later he claimed that it was more a matter of him being invited to sort out the organisational confusion which supposedly existed in Britain:
Now, all of this activity in England had gotten to a point where several organizations were at each other's throats. There were several organizations, and several groups, and they were all in disagreement with one another. And it was very easy for me to get an invitation to straighten this out.
With Europe's first Scientology organisation well on the way to being established, Hubbard made his first trip to Britain — and to Europe — in September 1952, accompanied by his pregnant wife Mary Sue. His principal reason for being present was, it would seem, to supervise the establishment of the London Scientology organisation, although one official Scientology account claims that the real reason was that "Amid the constant violence of the turncoat Don J. Purcell of Wichita and his suits which attempted to seize Scientology, Mary Sue became ill and to save her life, Ron took her to England."
London in 1952 was still feeling the after-effects of the Second World War. Shortages continued to bite, with rationing still in force — it did not end until 1954 — and large areas of the city were in ruins following five years of enemy bombardment. Perhaps more importantly for the Hubbard, the economic situation was very much less favourable than in the US — the average Briton had far less disposable income than his American counterpart. Britain was also far more insular than it is today. Although American culture had made major inroads after ten years of hosting US servicemen, there was still a deep cultural conservatism and disdain for "foreign" culture. This was particularly apparent amongst the close-knit upper and middle class public servants who made up Britain's legendary Establishment, and this inherent conservatism was later to have important consequences for Hubbard and Scientology.
Fortunately for Hubbard, he did not have to suffer first-hand the effects of post-war austerity, save for the lack of his favourite cigarettes (for which he cabled home: "SEND MORE KOOLS"). The local Dianeticists rented for him a large Edwardian villa at 30 Marlborough Place in St John's Wood, an up-market part of northwest London near the northern edge of Regent's Park. Hubbard made Marlborough Place his centre of operations for the next three months, giving regular demonstrations of Dianetics and Scientology auditing. The Hubbard Association of Scientologists was duly formed and, as Hubbard had expected, it had an immediate effect — independent groups rapidly fell apart as their members moved across to the HAS. Hubbard's organisation had the overwhelming advantage of having immediate access to official Dianetics/Scientology publications and training, which at a stroke removed the raison d'être of the DFGB. However, not every group packed up overnight, as a few holdouts continued to resist Hubbard. Relentless pressure eventually ground them down until the demise, in the summer of August 1955, of the last surviving independent organisation, the Bristol Dianetic Group. Hubbard, typically, commented darkly on the "strange finances" that had sustained it for so long.
In the autumn of 1952, Scientology came to the attention of the British authorities for the first time. On 31 October, Hubbard wrote a letter to the Home Office Aliens Department (responsible for the affairs of foreign visitors in the UK) describing the valuable work he was doing and mentioning the difficulties that he was having with the independent Dianetics groups. It is not clear what provoked this letter, which unfortunately is no longer extant, but it is likely that it was intended to justify his continued presence in the UK. The Home Office was uncertain, as officials had no idea what "Dianetics" or "Scientology" were or what Hubbard's work entailed. What they discovered on further investigation made them deeply sceptical of Hubbard. Scientology, wrote one official, "appears to be merely a pseudo-scientific venture without solid basis". As a result of these findings, Hubbard was not permitted to extend his visa; his immigration status was to be a bone of contention for the next five years.
One member of the Hubbard family at least had no immigration problems — born three weeks after her parents' arrival in the UK, Diana Meredith de Wolfe Hubbard was automatically a British subject. The adult Hubbards were not so lucky and with the expiration of their permission to stay in November 1952, Hubbard, Mary Sue and the baby travelled back to the United States to deliver a series of lectures on Scientology in Philadelphia. It was somewhat marred by Hubbard's arrest on 16 December, accused of wrongfully withdrawing $9,286 from the bankrupt Wichita Dianetics Foundation. He was quickly brought before the bankruptcy court, agreed to make restitution and was discharged.
Perhaps because of this spot of legal bother, he very soon afterwards flew back to London on a fresh visa, where he completed the Philadelphia lectures. It was probably as a result of his immigration problems that he felt the need to burnish his credentials, to convince officialdom that he was a serious individual and not just a dubious crackpot. On 27 February, he sent an urgent telegram to an associate in Los Angeles:
"PLEASE INFORM DR HOUGH PHD VERY ACCEPTABLE. PRIVATELY TO YOU. FOR GOSH SAKES EXPEDITE. WORK HERE UTTERLY DEPENDENT ON IT. CABLE REPLY. RON"
Dr Joseph Hough was the proprietor of a notorious "degree mill", the self-proclaimed "Sequoia University", which bestowed degrees on applicants in exchange for a suitable monetary consideration. Hubbard duly acquired, the following day, a dubious "Doctorate of Divinity" and an even more dubious "Doctor of Scientology". Other Scientologists soon found "doctorates" liberally bestowed upon them.
However, the sceptical British public showed little interest in the discoveries of "Dr" Hubbard, as he now styled himself. In an "Associate Newsletter" sent to Scientologists in May 1953, he declared that
the general public is hardly aware that [Scientology] exists and I have just made probably the most disastrous lecture in terms of attendance in the city of Birmingham up in the middle of England. There were 100 people present, and every one of them was deeply interested in the subject and well advised about it. They probably constituted all the people in that area who had even heard of it and they were well informed of it, but as far as general public attendance or any curiosity audience is concerned, it didn't exist. In view of the fact that the lecture was given in the Town Hall which seats anything up to 2,500 or 3,000 people, this 100 made about the emptiest looking hall you ever wanted to stare at from a lecture platform.
Things were little better in London. Scientology's official presence there was entirely on a par with its modest means: a couple of draughty rooms above a shop at 163 Holland Park Avenue, near Shepherd's Bush in west London. The area, then as now, was distinctly run-down. Helen O'Brien, who at the time managed the Philadelphia Scientology franchise, received a dismal first-hand description of the shabby building from a friend who visited the HAS offices in London:
There was an atmosphere of extreme poverty and undertones of a grim conspiracy over all. At 163 Holland Park Avenue was an ill-lit lecture room and a bare-boarded and poky office some eight by ten feet, mainly infested by long-haired men and short-haired, tatty women.
Hubbard himself remained ensconced mainly at Marlborough Place, operating for a short time from a house at 4 Marylebone High Street, until returning to the United States in the autumn of 1953 when his visa ran out once more. His return to his home turf marked one of the most momentous changes in Scientology's history: its conversion into a religion. He was candid, at least in private, about why he wanted to make the change. In a letter of 10 April 1953 sent to Helen O'Brien, he wrote:
We want to … 1. knock psychotherapy into history and 2. make enough money to shine up my operating scope and 3. keep the HAS solvent. It is a problem of practical business.
I await your reaction on the religion angle. In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell.
The "religion angle" was deemed sufficiently promising for Hubbard to incorporate the Church of Scientology and Church of Spiritual Technology in Camden, New Jersey in December 1953 (the "Founding" Church of Scientology in Washington, DC was in fact not incorporated until the following February). However, little effort was made to standardise the new structure worldwide for another decade, and the Hubbard Association of Scientologists International (HASI) remained the backbone of the Scientology organisation outside of the United States. Within the US, the controlling organisation was the Hubbard Association of Scientologists, based in Phoenix, Arizona, while on the west coast Scientology came under the management of the Church of Scientology of California. Hubbard explained to associate Scientologists why this divergence of approaches existed: "In California we are most acceptable as a religion" — it was wiser, presumably, to wear a secular face elsewhere. In Britain, there certainly seems to have been little effort to portray Scientology as a religion until well into the 1960s; it did not operate as the Church of Scientology until as late as the summer of 1967.
At the end of September 1955, the Hubbard family once again moved back to London. Hubbard set up home and an office — the Hubbard Communications Office, soon to become the nerve centre of Scientology worldwide — at 83 Palace Gardens Terrace, just off Notting Hill. At the time, it was not a particularly fashionable part of town. It was an ethnically mixed area, having become the centre of one of London's largest communities of West Indian immigrants. Hubbard's new home was an apartment in a block built during the inter-war years opposite what is now the Czech Embassy, just up from the much plusher line of houses leading towards Kensington Palace. London's Scientologists, too, moved into more comfortable quarters when the decrepit Scientology office in Holland Park Avenue relocated in 1956. Thanks to the assistance of a well-off Scientologist businessman, spacious and much more central offices were found at 35/37 Fitzroy Street, about a mile north of Oxford Circus and only a short distance from the present-day location of London's Scientology organisation.
Scientology's increasing prosperity was due, to a large extent, to its increasingly effective exploitation of social angst — a tactic at which it excels to this day. Borrowing a phrase from the Grade 0 Scientology course, Hubbard ran an advertisement in London's evening newspapers along the lines of: "Personal counselling. I will talk to anyone for you about anything. Phone Rev. So-and-so between hour-and-hour." The response was immediate and, as Hubbard said, "extremely successful". Hubbard's associate and friend, Ray Kemp, later recalled: "We were inundated with calls — everyone from potential suicides to a girl who couldn't decide which of three men to marry." In marked contrast to the Samaritans, the priority for Scientologists was not help but recruitment, as Hubbard made abundantly clear:
If it is the purpose of the minister simply to solve the problem of the preclear thus phoning, he can of course cancel out his clientele with the greatest of ease. This however is not his purpose. His purpose is to get this individual into a weekly group processing unit.
The success of this approach prompted Hubbard to use even more distasteful methods of recruitment, which — fortunately for him — was does not seem to have been noticed by officialdom. Readers of London's small ads columns in the mid-50s would have seen the following advertisement, which Hubbard dubbed "Illness Researches":
Polio victims. A research foundation, investigating polio desires volunteers suffering from the after effects of that illness to call for examination at address.
Upon arriving for the "examination," the polio sufferer would be given three hours of auditing. Some Scientologists were evidently uneasy about this unscrupulous tactic:
And here is this British Scientologist who has been in practice for years standing there in front of my desk and asking me in a surprised tone of voice whether or not we could do anything for polio or other types of illnesses. This man is reputed to have more success with auditing than many others. But if he has not learned that we can alleviate the majority of any illness in any series (as distinct from curing all cases into a state of perfection), then what does this man think we are doing? Does he think that Scientology is a swindle? He must!
Hubbard's expansion of his activities into areas more commonly associated with medicine was directly related to a significant change of heart that he underwent at around this time. Dianetics had provoked considerable criticism from doctors and psychiatrists, many of who were unsparing in their critiques of Hubbard's ideas. Hubbard did not initially retaliate in kind, but instead professed a lofty indifference towards the medical profession:
[Psychologists, psychiatrists and medical doctors] are entirely in error when they express the opinion that Scientologists are against them. Scientology does not consider them sufficiently important to be against … We have no more quarrel with a psychologist than we would have with an Australian witch doctor. We have no quarrel with a psychiatrist any more than we should quarrel with a barbarian because he had never heard of nuclear physics … Scientology cares nothing about either medicine or psychiatry.
His attitude changed abruptly only a few months later after he issued that statement, when in July 1955 he wrote to the FBI to denounce what he believed was an "attack made by psychiatrists using evidently Communist connected personnel". The last straw for Hubbard appears to have been the arrest in Phoenix, Arizona of an elderly Scientologist, Edd Clark, for allegedly practicing medicine without a license — probably as the result of a complaint by a medical professional. A further outraged letter was despatched to the FBI, followed by the public issuing of a de facto declaration of war against psychiatry:
Nearly all the backlash in society against Dianetics and Scientology has a common source — the psychiatrist-psychologist-psychoanalyst clique … I could tell you about three actual murders. I could tell you about long strings of psychotics run in on the Foundation and the Association, sent in to us by psychiatrists who then, using LSD and pain-drug-hypnosis, spun them and told everyone Dianetics and Scientology drove people insane … The public utterly LOATHES psychiatry. You waste time if you try to defame psychiatry to the public … Psychiatry stands in the public mind for ineffectiveness, lies and inhuman brutality.
Declaring that "we are overtly intent upon assimilating every function [medicine and psychiatry] are now performing", Hubbard had set the stage for an all-out war between Scientology and the mental health profession around the world.
At the start of 1956, Hubbard's immigration status yet again came under official scrutiny as the activities of Scientology expanded. After being informed that he would be required to leave, Home Office civil servants noted that "strong representations" in his favour were being made to the Home Secretary. Hubbard told Scientologists that "a great many friends, some of them in higher places, are pitching in to straighten this out", these friends apparently including "three lords and the leader of the opposition [then Hugh Gaitskell] in the House of Commons". In response, the Home Office made further enquiries into the worth of Hubbard's work, commissioning Special Branch — the section of Scotland Yard responsible for counter-subversion and liaison with the secret services — to conduct a discreet investigation of Hubbard's finances. The views of the Ministry of Health were also sought, marking the first time that the medical validity of Scientology had been investigated by the British authorities. A noted academic psychiatrist, Professor Aubrey Lewis of the University of London, reviewed Hubbard's works on Dianetics but was not impressed; "a farrago of nonsense," "sheer quackery" and "no scientific basis" were his conclusions. Sir John Charles of the Ministry of Health pronounced the official verdict:
It seems quite clear that this man is a charlatan and that neither he nor his association are likely to be of any benefit to this country.
To his evident disgust, Hubbard was told to leave, although his departure ended up being somewhat delayed by his summoning as a witness in a serious criminal trial. He left for Ireland with his friend Ray Kemp to set up a Scientology operation there, firing parting shots at "Communist-infiltrated England, where Russia has been active with anti-American propaganda in order to rob the crown of its only powerful ally to ready a later banquet for the Russian bear." He promised, however, that he would be back soon "as enough British brass has interceded on my behalf to permit me on occasion to pop into London", promising great things from his latest discovery — "now we've got our hands on the monopoly of radiation healing throughout the world".
With a change of immigration rules in 1957, permitting foreigners to remain indefinitely if they had sufficient means to support themselves, Hubbard returned to the UK semi-permanently. Although he claimed an abashed U-turn on the part of the Government — "the British government said, 'Hubbard? Hubbard? Why, yes, he can have a visa as long as he likes. Yes. Fine chap, fine chap, you know.'" — the reality was that Home Office officials had been very reluctant to permit Hubbard to stay, but recognised that the new rules no longer gave them discretion to refuse.
Having established a strong Scientology presence in the country, Hubbard turned his full-time attention to "proofing" people against radiation and developing what he claimed was a revolutionary new technique to cure radiation sickness and cancer. In April 1957 he hired the Royal Empire Society Hall in Trafalgar Square to address the "London Congress on Nuclear Radiation and Health", which was attended by some 400 Scientologists. His lectures were transcribed and issued as a book, All About Radiation, supposedly written "by a doctor and a nuclear physicist [Hubbard]". It [was] accompanied by a promotional campaign for his "anti-radiation" vitamin compound, Dianazene. When the US Food and Drug Administration became aware of Hubbard's promotion of Dianazene in 1958, it seized and destroyed a consignment of 21,000 tablets on the grounds of mislabelling.
Hubbard's finances, which had so interested Special Branch, also proved problematic in the United States. The Church of Scientology had gained tax exemption in 1956 but this was withdrawn in 1958, as a result of what was termed "inurement"; that is, supposedly charitable funds had been siphoned off by Hubbard and his family for their personal enrichment, to the tune of hundreds of thousands of dollars. This marked a fundamental breakdown in relations between the United States Government and Scientology. The long series of letters to the FBI from Hubbard ceased abruptly, as Hubbard put into effect his policy of "disconnection" from "suppressive" elements — in this case, the United States Government.
At the same time as he was solving the problem of atomic war, Hubbard was revealing the startling scope of past lives supposedly experienced by Scientologists. In October 1958, he assembled a group of approximately seventy Scientologists at Scientology's Fitzroy Street offices for the 5th London Advanced Clearing Course — the low numbers were indicative of the small size of Scientology's hard core membership in the UK. The outcome was published in an extremely strange book named Have You Lived Before This Life?, an account of the past lives claimed by the course's attendees. The "purely scientific" book included tales of how Scientologists had lived as abstract geometric shapes, fought in intergalactic wars and even been lynched by road-roller-driving Martian bishops wielding "zap guns". The tenor of the book can perhaps be guessed by the fact that the most commonly reported cause of death was falling out of spaceships. It appears to have been a fairly jolly occasion. One attendee, Cyril Vosper, later recalled:
There was a good deal of rivalry as to who could dig up the most notable or extraordinary past life. Jesus of Nazareth was very popular. At least three London Scientologists claimed to have uncovered incidents in which they were crucified and rose from the dead to save the world. Queen Elizabeth I, Walter Raleigh and the venerable Bede were also popular.
After a brief visit to Washington, Hubbard and his family — by now he had four young children — returned to London in February 1959, moving into the former home of Ray Kemp on the Finchley Road in Golders Green. He was not an ideal tenant, though, as Pam Kemp recalled:
He stiffed us for the rent and he stiffed the greengrocer. Before they moved in, the greengrocer on the other side of the road asked us if he could trust the new tenants and we said "Of course." Ron proceeded to run up a huge bill which he never paid. And he never paid us any rent. We asked him dozens of times for the money. He told us to ask Mary Sue and she always said they didn't have any money.
Hubbard, however, certainly was not poverty-stricken — his gross receipts for the fiscal year ending June 1956 had amounted to $102,604, a small fortune in those days. His growing prosperity was clearly visible — Cyril Vosper noticed that the flashy American clothes formerly favoured by Hubbard had been replaced by expensive Saville Row suits and silk shirts. In fact, Hubbard was saving his pennies for something else entirely. To the general astonishment of his immediate colleagues, he announced in the spring of 1959 that he had purchased the former home of the Maharajah of Jaipur at Saint Hill Manor, near East Grinstead, Sussex, for a price which was declared to the Inland Revenue as being £17,707.7/6 (then $42,494). This was to become the worldwide headquarters of Scientology as well as the Hubbard family's own luxurious abode. By this time, however, storm clouds had already begun to gather over Hubbard and his organisation; it was not long before they broke.
 Undated letter from Secretary Dianetic Study Group, N.W.3, to other Dianeticists, probably early 1952; quoted in Roy Wallis, The Road to Total Freedom
 'British dianetics — the present position', Epicentre: Bulletin of the Dianetic Federation of Great Britain, no. 2 (September 1952), p. 1
 Hubbard, "Opening Lecture", lecture of 1 January 1960
 Hubbard, Associate Newsletter No. 3, ca. mid-May 1953
 Helen O'Brien, Dianetics in Limbo
 Hubbard, letter to Helen O'Brien, 10 April 1953
 Hubbard, associate newsletter, 10 March 1954
 Hubbard, "Three Methods Of Dissemination", Operational Bulletin No. 14, 24 January 1956
 Russell Miller, interview with Ray & Pam Kemp, August 1986
 Hubbard, "Three Methods Of Dissemination", Operational Bulletin No. 14, 24 January 1956
 Hubbard, Operational Bulletin No. 14, 24 January 1956
 Hubbard, "The Scientologist: A Manual on the Dissemination of Material", Ability Major 1, ca. March 1955
 Hubbard, letter to FBI, 7 September 1955
 Hubbard, Professional Auditor's Bulletin no. 62, "Psychiatrists", 30 September 1955
 Hubbard, Operational Bulletin no. 16, "Scientology U.S.", 7 February 1956
 Hubbard, Operational Bulletin no. 16, "Scientology U.S.", 7 February 1956
 Sir John Charles, internal Ministry of Health memo, 29 Feb 1956
 Hubbard, Professional Auditor's Bulletin 74, "Office in Ireland", 6 March 1956
 Hubbard, "Opening Lecture", lecture of 1 January 1960
 Russell Miller, interview with Ray & Pam Kemp, August 1986
 Founding Church of Scientology v. US Court of Claims No. 22-61